Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as " favorite son " candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington, Stevenson, and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.
Title VI[ edit ] Prevents discrimination by programs and activities that receive federal funds. If an recipient of federal funds is found in violation of Title VI, that recipient may lose its federal funding. General This title declares it to be the policy of the United States that discrimination on the ground of race, color, or national origin shall not occur in connection with programs and activities receiving Federal financial assistance and authorizes and directs the appropriate Federal departments and agencies to take action to carry out this policy.
This title is not intended to apply to foreign assistance programs.
Section directs each Federal agency administering a program of Federal financial assistance by way of grant, contract, or loan to take action pursuant to rule, regulation, or order of general applicability to effectuate the principle of section in a manner consistent with the achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the assistance.
In seeking the effect compliance with its requirements imposed under this section, an agency is authorized to terminate or to refuse to grant or to continue assistance under a program to any recipient as to whom there has been an express finding pursuant to a hearing of a failure to comply with the requirements under that program, and it may also employ any other means authorized by law.
However, each agency is directed first to seek compliance with its requirements by voluntary means. Section provides that any agency action taken pursuant to section shall be subject to such judicial review as would be available for similar actions by that agency on other grounds.
Where the agency action consists of terminating or refusing to grant or to continue financial assistance because of a finding of a failure of the recipient to comply with the agency's requirements imposed under sectionand the agency action would not otherwise be subject to judicial review under existing law, judicial review shall nevertheless be available to any person aggrieved as provided in section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act 5 U.
The section also states explicitly that in the latter situation such agency action shall not be deemed committed to unreviewable agency discretion within the meaning of section The purpose of this provision is to obviate the possible argument that although section provides for review in accordance with section 10, section 10 itself has an exception for action "committed to agency discretion," which might otherwise be carried over into section It is not the purpose of this provision of sectionhowever, otherwise to alter the scope of judicial review as presently provided in section 10 e of the Administrative Procedure Act.
Title VII applies to and covers an employer "who has fifteen 15 or more employees for each working day in each of twenty or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year" as written in the Definitions section under 42 U.
Title VII also prohibits discrimination against an individual because of his or her association with another individual of a particular race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, such as by an interracial marriage.
In very narrowly defined situations, an employer is permitted to discriminate on the basis of a protected trait where the trait is a bona fide occupational qualification BFOQ reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business or enterprise.
To prove the bona fide occupational qualifications defense, an employer must prove three elements: The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification exception is an extremely narrow exception to the general prohibition of discrimination based on protected traits Dothard v.
RawlinsonU. An employer or customer's preference for an individual of a particular religion is not sufficient to establish a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v.
Kamehameha School — Bishop EstateF. Title VII allows for any employer, labor organization, joint labor-management committee, or employment agency to bypass the "unlawful employment practice" for any person involved with the Communist Party of the United States or of any other organization required to register as a Communist-action or Communist-front organization by final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board pursuant to the Subversive Activities Control Act of The proscriptions against employment discrimination under Title VII are now applicable to certain federal government offices under 42 U.
Section e Federally recognized Native American tribes Religious groups performing work connected to the group's activities, including associated education institutions; Bona fide nonprofit private membership organizations.
Where a state law is contradicted by a federal law, it is overridden. Title VII also provides that an individual can bring a private lawsuit.
An individual must file a complaint of discrimination with the EEOC within days of learning of the discrimination or the individual may lose the right to file a lawsuit.
Title VII only applies to employers who employ 15 or more employees for 20 or more weeks in the current or preceding calendar year 42 U. Precedents and history[ edit ] In the early s, the EEOC and some federal courts began holding that sexual harassment is also prohibited under the Act. VinsonU. This case filed by plaintiff Mechelle Vinson was the first in the history of the court to recognize sexual harassment as actionable.
Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc. The decision held that discrimination on the basis of gender identity qualified as discrimination on the basis of sex whether the discrimination was due to sex stereotyping, discomfort with the fact of an individual's transition, or discrimination due to a perceived change in the individual's sex.
DoJ had already stopped opposing claims of discrimination brought by federal transgender employees. Attorney General Session stated as a matter of law, "Title VII does not prohibit discrimination based on gender identity per se.
Georgia Regional Hospital, in which a lower court ruled against the plaintiff, who had argued Title VII protections applied to sexual orientation. Title IX[ edit ] Title IX made it easier to move civil rights cases from state courts to federal court.
This was of crucial importance to civil rights activists[ who?In the campaign, Lyndon B. Johnson was elected Vice President as John F. Kennedy’s running mate.
On November 22, , when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson . President Lyndon B. Johnson takes Oath of Office, 22 November About Image ST-1A 22 November Judge Sarah T. Hughes administers the Presidential Oath of Office to Lyndon Baines Johnson aboard Air Force One, at Love Field, Dallas Texas.
Essay Lyndon B. Johnson 's Life. Lyndon B.
Johnson was sworn in as president on an aircraft carrying John F. Kennedy’s dead body from Dallas to Washington D.C. Right from the start LBJ had ambitions to eliminate poverty by instilling progressive reforms called the “Great Society”. To fully comprehend the similarities and differences between John F.
Kennedys New Frontier and Lyndon B. Johnsons Great Society you must understand their intentions first. John F. Kennedy was not an ordinary President. The major candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination were John F.
Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington from Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson from Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson, Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon, and Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota. The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, , changed the political situation.
Kennedy's successor as president, Lyndon Johnson, made use of his experience in legislative politics, along with the bully pulpit he wielded as president, in support of the bill.