Historicity of Afghanistan's art[ edit ] How wonderful that people show interest in our past, it means there is hope for the future. Afghanistan has been a crossroads of cultures that make up the colorfully robust and dynamic foundation of Afghan art.
Paleolithic cultures The earliest artifacts discovered in Central Asia were found in Siberia and western Turkistan and are from about the 13th millennium bc.
During the millennia that followed, migrants entered the region from various directions, regardless of the geographic obstacles they encountered.
As a result, some of their artifacts correspond with those produced at a similar stage of development in more western areas; some finds from the northeastern part of what was formerly Soviet Turkistan, for example, are related to certain objects made in Iran and Mesopotamia, and those from northwestern Central Asia are linked to eastern and central Europe by means of the Volga River and of Kazakhstan.
A cave in the Baysuntau Range containing the body of a Neanderthal boy aged about nine had been so carefully prepared that it is evident that the people who made his grave believed in an afterlife.
The site of Malta, 50 miles 80 kilometres to the southeast of Irkutsk, and that of Buret, 80 miles kilometres to the north, are noted for their mammoth-tusk figurines of nude women.
They resemble Paleolithic statuettes from Europe and the Middle East and probably served as fertility symbols or as representations of the great goddesswhose cult was widespread.
Some of these figurines depict elegant, slender women, others heavy, corpulent ones.
Of five found at Buret, one is unusual in that it is of a clothed woman wearing a one-piece trouser suit with a hood attached to it comparable to those still worn by present-day Eskimos.
In recent years Paleolithic sites have been discovered south of Samarkand, and rock paintings have been found at Zaraut Say Zaraut Stream in the Babatag Range, 50 miles east of Termiz, and in the Shakty Caves in the Pamirs.
Executed in red ochre, they depict hunting scenes. Those in the Shakty Cave are the older and include a man disguised as a bird and other men wearing skins and shooting at wild oxen with bows and arrows. The invention of the bow is ascribed to the 10th millennium bc, the Mesolithic Period Middle Stone Age.
The majority were found on the middle reaches of the Yenisey Riverespecially in the Minusinsk Basin, where metallurgy developed early. They testify to the existence of three main, basically successive, yet often overlapping cultures: A cemetery to the southwest of Krasnoyarsk, on the slopes of the Afanasyevskaya Mountains, contained 80 burials dating from the 2nd millennium bc.
The earlier ones were flat and marked by stone circles symbolizing the Sun god; the later ones took the form of barrows, or large mounds of earth, but were also encircled by similar stone slabs. The earlier graves contained elongated, spherical pottery vessels with pointed bases decorated with herringbone patterns.
In the later graves this type of ware was superseded by flat-bottomed pots usually associated with sedentary pastoralist cultures.
The graves also contained numerous stone and bone objects. Although copper objects were rare, they heralded the dawn of a new cultural period, the Metal Age. The Andronovo culture succeeded the Afanasyevskaya in the 2nd and 1st millennia bc.
Although found to the southwest of Krasnoyarsk, it is more frequently encountered in western Siberia and Kazakhstan. The settlement and cemetery of Alekseevskoe present Tenlyksome miles kilometres south of Yekaterinburg formerly Sverdlovskis especially important, because its earth houses were designed for permanent habitation.
Their roofs rested on logs, and each dwelling had a central hearth used for heating purposes with side hearths intended for cooking.
Bronze objects were numerous, and workshops existed for working copper. The metal probably came from mines in the Minusinsk Basin, Kazakhstan, and the western Altai Mountainsthe latter having been worked as early as the 14th century bc.
Dating from about to about 70 bc—the dawn of the Iron and historical age—the Karasuk culture was located in the Minusinsk Basin, on the Yenisey River and on the upper reaches of the Ob River. Its creators must have been in touch with East Asia, for certain bronze objects, notably elbow-shaped knives, are related to those used between the 14th and 11th centuries bc in China during the Shang period.
Dzheytun, northwest of Ashgabat Ashkhabad in the Kyzylkum Desertis the oldest known agricultural settlement in Central Asia. It possessed a thriving Neolithic flint industry.
Annau, six miles 10 kilometres southeast of Ashgabat and Namazga-Tepesituated in the same region and occupying an area of some acres 60 hectaresare important Bronze Age sites.
The pottery vessels recovered from Namazga-Tepe are decorated with painted plant and animal motifs showing affinities with contemporary pottery wares from the Middle East.
Figurines of dogs and sheep were numerous, and a model of a house has also been found. At Karatepealso near Ashgabat, an agricultural society produced fine pottery from the 3rd millennium bc, but it reached its fullest development in the 2nd millennium bc in a series of vessels decorated with particularly spirited animal designs.
The main Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures produced several distinctive offshoots, which began to emerge by the early Iron Age. The Neolithic Hissar culture of southern Tajikistan spread across northeastern Central Asia into the Semirechiye, or foothills of the Tien Shanwhile in Siberia the Bronze Age Karasuk culture was replaced in the 8th century bc by the Tagar culture.
The latter endured until the 2nd century bc, producing an art of animal motifs related to that of the Scythians of southern European Russia.
Some of the inhabitants worked in copper mines at the time when potters of the Chust Bronze Age culture of the Fergana Valley were producing fine-quality tableware, as well as cruder pottery articles. The best Chust pottery was very thin, covered with a red slip liquid clay and decorated after glazing with black triangular and scroll designs.
Cyrus II the Great, the ancient Persian king who founded the Achaemenian Empire, was killed by the nomadic Massagetai when campaigning in eastern Iran in bc.
Their gold belt buckles, jewelry, and harness decorations display sheep, griffins, and other animal designs that are similar in style to those used by the Scythiansa nomadic people living in the Kuban basin of the Caucasus region and the western section of the Eurasian plain during the greater part of the 1st millennium bc.The Destruction of History April 5, There have been times when events and circumstances of the past have been altered or revised to meet the needs of particularly politicians to create illusions that will meet their needs for a variety of reasons.
Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists and other Buddhists during the history of rutadeltambor.comution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or the incitement of hatred towards Buddhists.
Start studying AP art history Buddhism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Study 24 Big Buddhas flashcards from Chia Wei K. on StudyBlue. Big Buddhas - Art History 35 with Gregory Levine at University of California - Berkeley - StudyBlue Flashcards.
function: massive buddhist monument that contains lifesized buddhas and thousands of relief sculptures. The many levels of pathways have many meanings. it was meant to be walked around, the 6 terraces. lower stories represent world of desire and negative impulses, middle represent world of forms, top story is world of formulas, place of pilgrimage.
The Buddhas of Bamiyan (Persian: بتهای باميان – bott-hâye Bāmiyān) were 6th-century monumental statues of Gautam Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, kilometres ( mi) northwest of Kabul at an elevation of 2, metres (8, ft).Inscription: (27th Session).