Need for uniformity- Issuing agencies. The Federal government's need for a uniform set of principles on the question of the use of tests and other selection procedures has long been recognized. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Labor, and the Department of Justice jointly have adopted these uniform guidelines to meet that need, and to apply the same principles to the Federal Government as are applied to other employers. These guidelines incorporate a single set of principles which are designed to assist employers, labor organizations, employment agencies, and licensing and certification boards to comply with requirements of Federal law prohibiting employment practices which discriminate on grounds of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin.
History[ edit ] Aerial view of the Hawthorne Works, ca. Landsberger  when he was analyzing earlier experiments from —32 at the Hawthorne Works a Western Electric factory outside Chicago. The Hawthorne Works had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higher or lower levels of light.
The workers' productivity seemed to improve when changes were made, and slumped when the study ended. It was suggested that the productivity gain occurred as a result of the motivational effect on the workers of the interest being shown in them.
This effect was observed for minute increases in illumination. In these lighting studies, light intensity was altered to examine its effect on worker productivity.
Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-lived increase in productivity. Together the women worked in a separate room over the course of five years — assembling telephone relays. Output was measured mechanically by counting how many finished relays each worker dropped down a chute.
This measuring began in secret two weeks before moving the women to an experiment room and continued throughout the study. In the experiment room they had a supervisor who discussed changes with their productivity.
Some of the variables were: Giving two 5-minute breaks after a discussion with them on the best length of timeand then changing to two minute breaks not their preference. Productivity increased, but when they received six 5-minute rests, they disliked it and reduced output.
Providing food during the breaks.
Shortening the day by 30 minutes output went up ; shortening it more output per hour went up, but overall output decreased ; returning to the first condition where output peaked. Changing a variable usually increased productivity, even if the variable was just a change back to the original condition.
However it is said that this is the natural process of the human being adapting to the environment, without knowing the objective of the experiment occurring.
Researchers concluded that the workers worked harder because they thought that they were being monitored individually. Researchers hypothesized that choosing one's own coworkers, working as a group, being treated as special as evidenced by working in a separate roomand having a sympathetic supervisor were the real reasons for the productivity increase.
One interpretation, mainly due to Elton Mayo was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment.Before we proceed to explain the concept of job analysis, let us first understand the meaning of the term ‘job’ itself In simple words, a job may be understood as a division of total work into packages/positions.
According to Dale Yoder ‘, “A job is a collection or aggregation of tasks. Employee discipline is a necessary part of managing relationships with employees.
Companies should have policies that clearly establish the conduct expected of employees and what will happen when. Employee Relations. HR Daily Newsletter trends and analysis each business day. Employee Version. HR Help.
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Diploma in Business Unit Number and Title | Employee Relations | Start Employee Relation. understanding of employee relations to answer the following questions.