The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision.
Others insisted that even if there were events of a historical nature, such a history was unknown and unknowable, since African societies, for the most part, were nonliterate and as such left no records that historians could study.
The era of decolonization and the immediate post-independence years witnessed a growing rank of Africanists vigorously reject this Eurocentric and anti-African historical epistemology that privileged civilization and written sources as the only rational bases for historical scholarship and that denied the possibility of civilization and history to small-scale and nonliterate societies dominant in Africa.
Using an array of sources, these scholars were successful in showing that Africa not only had a history but that its history and the writing of it date back to ancient Antiquity. Ancient and classical writers wrote about Africa, even though their writings were unsystematic.
They were followed by Islamic and Arabic writers, who left first- or secondhand accounts of African states and societies that have continued to prove valuable for scholars of African history.
The next phase of African historiography was dominated by European traders, travelers, as well as missionaries and other adventurers, whose accounts of Africa, while generally tendentious and Eurocentric, remain major sources for the reconstruction of the African past.
European conquest and domination spawned a new era of colonial historiography that justified European imperialism and espoused the ideology of a savage Africa in need of European civilization and tutelage. Rejecting the privileging of written sources, it argued for and adopted the disciplined, rigorous, and corroborative use of a variety of sources and multidisciplinary methods from archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, linguistics, and art history to oral traditions.
General Overviews The nature, dynamic, and development of the subject of African historiography have attracted the attention of many scholars. Afolayan provides us with a succinct chronological overview.
Jewsiewicki and Newbury examines the sociopolitical conditions that shaped the development of historical writings in Africa. Ki-Zerbo is an edited volume that provides the most comprehensive and detailed exploration of different aspects of the subject.
Ranger calls for a new historiographical approach that emphasizes current relevance and usability, a position forcefully castigated by Neale but welcomed conditionally by Temu and Swaiwhich was sharply critical of the poverty of ideas inherent in a whole generation of postcolonial historical scholarship in Africa.
Edited by Kevin Shillington, — A succinct overview that traces the development of African historiography from the earliest written records to the postmodernist accounts of the present.
For general readers, undergraduate, and graduate students.Psychologists study and observe various emotional, social, and cognitive behaviors exhibited by individuals and groups in different settings.
A bachelor’s degree in psychology is an important first step toward pursuing a career in this richly rewarding field, but a master’s degree is considered the minimum credential for most positions. Wells is optimistic that such psychological research can have a profound impact on both police's evidence-gathering practices and on how courtrooms inform juries-like the Fairbanks jury-of the possibility that flaws may exist in eyewitness accounts.
Eyewitness misidentification is the greatest contributing factor to wrongful convictions proven by DNA testing, playing a role in more than 70% of convictions overturned through DNA testing nationwide.
Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE)..
Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation. In eyewitness identification, in criminal law, evidence is received from a witness "who has actually seen an event and can so testify in court".
 Although it has been observed, by the late U.S. Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., in his dissent to Watkins v. “Witness for the Defense is an important book.” ―The New York Times “An intriguing and disturbing work in which forensic psychologist Loftus, a specialist on memory, examines the fallibility of eyewitness testimony in criminal cases.