Portrait of Afonso de Albuquerquethe first European to conquer a part of Southeast Asia of Malacca In the period between the 15th to late 17th centuries, advances in cartography, shipbuilding and navigational skills gave rise to what is now called the Age of Exploration.
Patterns of a colonial age Crisis and response In the last half of the 18th century, all the major states of Southeast Asia were faced with crisis. The great political and social Colonial rule southeast asia of the classical states had begun to decay, and, although the reasons for this disintegration are not altogether clear, the expanded size of the states, the greater complexity of their societies, and the failure of older institutions to cope with change all must have played a part.
The most serious circumstances were undoubtedly those of Vietnam, where from to there raged a struggle—the Tay Son rebellion —over the very nature of the state. This rebellion threatened to sweep away the entire Confucian establishment of Vietnam, and perhaps would have done so if its leader had not attempted to accomplish too much too quickly.
Elsewhere, war and confusion held societies in their grip for much shorter periods, but everywhere rulers were compelled to think of changed circumstances around them and what they meant for the future. In the mainland states three great rulers of three new dynasties came to the fore: All three were fully aware of the dangers, internal as well as external, that faced them and their people, and their efforts were directed at meeting these challenges.
As their armies extended their reach beyond earlier limits, these rulers vigorously pursued a combination of traditional and new policies designed to strengthen their realms.
Of particular importance were efforts to bring villages under closer state control, curb shifting patron-client relationships, and centralize and tighten the state administrative apparatus.
The institution of kingship itself seemed to become more dynamic and intimately involved in the direction of the state. In retrospect, some of these policies had a recognizably modern ring to them, and, taken together, they represented, if not a revolution, at least a concerted effort at change.
Even Gia Long, whose conscience and circumstance both demanded that he give special attention to reviving the classical Confucian past, quietly incorporated selected Western and Tay Son ideas in his government.
Nor were the changes ineffectual, for by the large mainland states stood at the height of their powers. Nevertheless, it was uncertain whether these efforts would be sufficient to withstand the pressures of the immediate future.
Heinrich Damm In insular Southeast Asia the Javanese state confronted a similar crisis, but it had far less freedom with which to respond.
The Gianti Agreement had divided the realm and given the Dutch decisive political and economic powers. Though resistance was not impossible, it was difficult, especially since the rulers and their courts were now largely beholden to the Dutch for their positions.
The Javanese culture and society of earlier days was no longer serviceable, and court intellectuals sought to find a solution in both a revitalization of the past and a clear-eyed examination of the present.
Neither effort was successful, though not for want of trying. The idea of opposing Dutch rule, furthermore, was not abandoned entirely, and it was only the devastating Java War —30 that finally tamed the Javanese elite and, oddly enough, left the Dutch to determine the final shape of Javanese culture until the midth century.
Western dominance Except in Java and much of the Philippines, the expansion of Western colonial rule in most of Southeast Asia was a phenomenon only of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In the earlier period Europeans tended to acquire territory as a result of complicated and not always desired entanglements with Southeast Asian powers, either in disputes or as a result of alliances.
After aboutWestern forces generally were more invasive, requiring only feeble justification for going on the attack. The most important reasons for the change were a growing Western technological superiority, an increasingly powerful European mercantile community in Southeast Asia, and a competitive scramble for strategic territory.
Only Siam remained largely intact and independent. By the rest of the region had been divided among the British, French, Dutch, and Spanish who soon were replaced by the Americanswith the Portuguese still clinging to the island of Timor.
More peaceful Western encroachments on local sovereignty also occurred until the s. Full-blown, modern colonial states existed for only a short period, in many cases for not much more than a generation. British territorial acquisitions in Burma.
These colonial regimes, however, were not insubstantial, as they put down strong bureaucratic roots and—though often co-opting existing administrative apparatuses—formed centralized disciplined structures of great power.
They were backed by the enormous economic resources of the industrialized Western nations, and by the early 20th century, having effectively disarmed the indigenous societies, they possessed a monopoly on the means of violence. There is no mistaking the impact of Western colonial governments on their surroundings, and nowhere is this more evident than in the economic sphere.
Production of tin, oil, rubber, sugar, rice, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other commodities burgeoned, driven by both government and private activity. This brought rapid changes to the physical and human landscape and coupled Southeast Asia to a new worldwide capitalist system.
Indeed, colonial domination was only a variant condition in a rapidly changing world. Siam, which through a combination of circumstance and the wise leadership of Mongkut ruled —68 and Chulalongkorn — avoided Western rule, nevertheless was compelled to adopt policies similar to, and often even modeled on, those of the colonial powers in order to survive.
Modernization appeared to require such an approach, and the Thai did not hesitate to embrace it with enthusiasm.
Bangkok in the late s surpassed even British Singapore as a centre of such modern amenities as electric lighting and medical facilities, and the state itself had achieved an enviable degree of political and economic viability among its colonial neighbours.
They were unable, however, to avoid other concomitants of state expansion and modernization. Transformation of state and society It was not the purpose of the new states to effect rapid or broad social change.Learn colonial rule in southeast asia with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of colonial rule in southeast asia flashcards on Quizlet. The first edition of Southeast Asia: An Introductory History was published in and immediately filled a need for travelers and students interested in a tantalizingly different part of the rutadeltambor.comuent editions have continued to document with great perception the enormous changes and dramatic growth experienced in the region.
From Vietnam to Indonesia, press freedom in Southeast Asia is deteriorating, rights groups say, spurred by the rise of authoritarian governments and enabled by the Trump administration's relative indi. Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia Preview of Events Guide to Reading Section Preview Through “New Imperialism,” Westerners controlled vast territories, exploited native.
Kids learn about the history of colonial America. Educational articles for teachers, students, and schools including the thirteen colonies, culture, daily life.
Imperial Intoxication: Alcohol and the Making of Colonial Indochina (Southeast Asia: Politics, Meaning, and Memory) Hardcover – September 30,