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Review the course material online or in print. Review your Transcript to view and print your Certificate of Completion. Your date of completion will be the date Pacific Time the course was electronically submitted for credit, with no exceptions.
Partial credit is not available. According to the standards, accredited facilities should have a program for the surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcare-associated infections HAIs .
The most important aspect of infection control is establishing multidisciplinary programs that promote teamwork and foster an organizational culture centered on patient safety.
HAIs are one of the leading causes of death and increased morbidity for hospitalized patients and are a significant problem for healthcare providers . Historically, these infections have been known as nosocomial infections or hospital-acquired infections because they develop during hospitalization.
As health care has increasingly expanded beyond hospitals into outpatient settings, nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and even home care settings, the more appropriate term has become healthcare-acquired or healthcare-associated infection.
Many factors have contributed to an increase in HAIs. Advances in medical treatments have led to more patients with decreased immune function or chronic disease. The increase in the number of these patients, coupled with a shift in health care to the outpatient setting, yields a hospital population that is both more susceptible to infection and more vulnerable once infected.
In addition, the increased use of invasive devices and procedures has contributed to higher rates of infection . According to data published inHAIs develop in an estimated 1 in 25 hospitalized patients excluding skilled nursing facilities ; this number varies from year to year and had previously been estimated at a high of 1 in 10 [1, 4, 94, 95].
As HAIs have become a cause for increasing concern, many national organizations, state departments of health, and professional organizations have taken additional steps to prevent or control infection in the healthcare environment.
These efforts have been developed by healthcare quality agencies, professional associations, advocacy organizations, healthcare regulating bodies, and policymakers [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Inthe Institute for Healthcare Improvement IHI established theLives Campaign as a challenge to savepatient lives through six healthcare interventions, three of which were related to HAIs: Regulatory bodies have also focused on HAIs.
Perhaps the most aggressive campaign against HAIs has come from CMS, which has suspended reimbursement of hospital costs related to three categories of HAIs it considers "reasonably preventable: However, studies have shown that this policy has not been a contributor to any decrease in the rate of HAIs, and a survey indicated that adherence to only a few prevention strategies has increased as a result of the policy [97, 98].
The policy also has the potential to lead to increased unnecessary use of antimicrobials in an effort to prevent infections . The New York Codes, Rules, and Regulations require that certain healthcare professionals who may influence the control and prevention of HAIs complete training or education regarding infection control and barrier precautions .
New York State has also established professional standards of conduct to ensure that infection prevention and control practices are adhered to. According to the Rules of the Board of Regents: Part 29, "failing to use scientifically accepted infection prevention techniques appropriate to each profession for the cleaning and sterilization or disinfection of instruments, devices, materials and work surfaces, utilization of protective garb, use of covers for contamination-prone equipment and the handling of sharp instruments" is considered unprofessional conduct .
Appropriate infection control techniques include, but are not limited to, wearing appropriate personal protective equipment, adhering to recommendations for Universal and Standard Precautions, following sterilization and disinfection standards, and using the correct equipment in the correct way .
Healthcare professionals have the responsibility to adhere to scientifically accepted principles and practices of infection control in all healthcare settings and to oversee and monitor those medical and ancillary personnel for whom the professional is responsible .
Healthcare professionals are expected to use scientifically accepted infection prevention techniques appropriate to each profession for handwashing; aseptic technique; cleaning and sterilization or disinfection of instruments, devices, materials, and work surfaces; use of protective garb; use of covers for contamination-prone equipment; and handling of sharp instruments [15, 16, 17].
Evidence-based guidelines are at the heart of strategies to prevent and control HAIs and drug-resistant infections and address a wide range of issues from architectural design of hospitals to hand hygiene.
Some specialty organizations and quality improvement groups have summarized the guidelines for easier use in practice [2, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42]. Adherence to individual guidelines varies but, in general, is low.
Decreasing the number of HAIs will require research to better understand the reasons behind lack of compliance with guidelines and to develop strategies that target those reasons.
In addition, there are professional consequences for New York healthcare professionals who do not adhere to appropriate infection control efforts.
Healthcare professionals who fail to use scientifically accepted barrier precautions and state-established infection control practices may be subject to charges of professional misconduct .
The Office of Professional Medical Conduct may investigate on its own any suspected professional misconduct and is required to investigate each complaint received regardless of the source. The charges must state the substance of the alleged misconduct and the material facts but not the evidence.
A hearing may be called, if warranted. The results of the hearing i. Any professional found guilty of misconduct shall be subject to penalties, including :Demonstrate How To Use Aspects Of The Social Environment To Enable Positive Interactions With Individuals With Dementia DEM Approaches to Enable Rights and Choices for Individuals with Dementia whilst Minimising Risks 1 Key legislation: relevant sections from current legislation, eg Human Rights Act , Mental Capacity Act , Mental Capacity and Deprivation of Liberty.
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Healthcare professionals have the responsibility to adhere to scientifically accepted principles and practices of infection control in all healthcare settings and to oversee and monitor those medical and ancillary personnel for whom the professional is responsible. This course provides the information necessary for healthcare professionals to monitor, control, and prevent infection in.