What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers.
Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: Sittlichkeit Ethics also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality.
The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural valuescodes of conduct or social mores from a society that provides these codes of conduct in which it applies and is accepted by an individual.
It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that which is considered right or wrong. Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense. Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense.
Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape individuals' "moral" decisions, they deny that those cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior.
This may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalistshowever not all moral realists accept that position e. Instead, they hold that moral sentences are either categorically false claims of objective moral facts error theory ; claims about subjective attitudes rather than objective facts ethical subjectivism ; or else not attempts to describe the world at all but rather something else, like an expression of an emotion or the issuance of a command non-cognitivism.
Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism. For example, universal prescriptivism is a universalist form of non-cognitivism which claims that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives, and divine command theory and ideal observer theory are universalist forms of ethical subjectivism which claim that morality is derived from the edicts of a god or the hypothetical decrees of a perfectly rational being, respectively.
Anthropology[ edit ] Tribal and territorial[ edit ] Celia Green made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another.
By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual. These norms will be arbitrary, culturally dependent and 'flexible', whereas territorial morality aims at rules which are universal and absolute, such as Kant 's ' categorical imperative ' and Geisler 's graded absolutism.
Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status.
In-group and out-group[ edit ] Main article: Ingroups and outgroups Some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an " in-group " the individual and those they believe to be of the same group or an "out-group" people not entitled to be treated according to the same rules.
This belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. Jonathan Haidt has noted  that experimental observation indicating an in-group criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservativesbut far less so by liberals.
Comparing cultures[ edit ] Peterson and Seligman  approach the anthropological view looking across cultures, geo-cultural areas and across millennia.
They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined. Each of these includes several divisions. For instance humanity includes lovekindnessand social intelligence. Fons Trompenaarsauthor of Did the Pedestrian Die? One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian.
Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations, from none to definite. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external linksand by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message John Newton, author of Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century  compared the Eastern and the Western cultures about morality. As stated in Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, "One of the important objectives of this book is to blend harmoniously the fine souls regarding conduct in the Eastern and the Western cultures, to take the result as the source and then to create newer and better conduct principles to suit the human society of the new century, and to introduce a lot of Chinese fine conduct spirits to the Western world.Dec 01, · Note: "Overview" articles are full-length explorations of major topics in the theology of work.
If you're interested in a specific aspect of the topic, . Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality. The word "ethics" is "commonly used interchangeably with 'morality,' and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual.".
Oct 30, · These three: values, morals and ethics define a persons humanness and therefore his/her identity in terms of humanness is defined by these three. Values - The basis of harmony in relationships Values are intrinsic principles that govern relationships.
Plato: Political Philosophy. Plato (c. B.C.E.) developed such distinct areas of philosophy as epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics.
His deep influence on Western philosophy is asserted in the famous remark of Alfred North Whitehead: “the safest characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato.”.
Explain why a knowledge of law and ethics is important in a working medical office. 2) Describe the difference between law, ethics, etiquette, morals and values. 3) Distinguish how law and ethics are related 4) compare the consequences of unlawful and unethical behavior - identify and respond to iss.
Personal Ethics vs Professional Ethics - What is the difference between personal ethics and professional ethics. Ethics is a word that can be used loosely, so it’s important to understand the meaning of this question by first discussing what is meant by personal ethics or professional ethics.