History[ edit ] Beauty pageants started in when the owner of an Atlantic City hotel struck upon the idea to help boost tourism. Originally, it was for young people from 13 to 17 years old, but by there were over 35, participants, which prompted an age division. Since then, the industry has grown to include aboutpageants.
Athletic trainers are health care providers specifically trained in injury prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation.
Employment of an athletic trainer Sport marketing dissertations the secondary school setting ensures that the student athletes are participating in a safe environment, that they are being cared for free of charge, and that emergency situations are handled in the proper way.
Part of this increase is due to Title IX legislation which required schools to increase opportunities for female student athletes 2. Female student athlete participation increased from just underinthe year Title IX Sport marketing dissertations passed, to 3.
Although there is debate over the value of interscholastic athletic programs, especially in times of budget cuts, there is research to support the positive impact of interscholastic athletic program participation.
It has been suggested that student athletes have higher grade point averages, better attendance rates, lower discipline referrals, lower dropout rates, and higher graduate rates than those who do not participate in high school athletic programs 6, Additionally, skills like discipline, team work, self-confidence, fair play, acceptance of others, goal setting, and leadership are developed as part of athletic participation that the student athlete will carry with them to the future Most importantly, interscholastic athletic programs provide opportunities for all, including minorities and students from disadvantaged backgrounds 7.
Due to the large student athlete population and the potential immediate and future benefits of interscholastic athletics, it is important to ensure that the student athletes are properly cared for and have a safe environment in which to participate.
Athletic trainers ATs are recognized by the American Medical Association as health care professionals who focus on injury prevention, injury diagnosis, and injury rehabilitation Athletic trainers work under the direction of a physician, and act as the facilitator of the entire sports medicine team.
Working closely with a physician, the AT can more efficiently refer patients directly to the physician which will save money by minimizing emergency room visits and additional physician referrals. Athletic trainers are specifically trained to handle emergency situations during athletic activities and are extensively trained in concussion diagnosis.
Some schools have full-time AT employment where the AT attends practices and competitions for the different male and female sports as well as offer open clinic hours for students to walk in when they have an injury.
Finally, many schools have no access to an AT. Injuries in Interscholastic Athletics Although some AT employment for interscholastic athletics is positive, having an AT only at football or basketball games will not address the areas where many injuries occur.
It is estimated that 1 in 5 or approximately 1. Unfortunately, due to the nature and demand of the sports that are played in the high school setting, serious and life threatening injuries occur.
Of those 62 catastrophic injuries, 22 resulted in fatalities while the rest were considered non-fatal or serious. Some of these student athletes did make a full recovery, while others will have continued disabilities.
The NCCSIR defines a direct mechanism as an injury that resulted directly from participation in the skills of the sport such as collision with another player, while they define an indirect mechanism as an injury that was caused by exertion while participating in a sport activity or by a complication that was secondary to a non-fatal injury and resulted in systematic failure, such as a cardiac event or heat illness Due to the collision nature of football, it is often thought that the direct contact mechanism is the leading cause of catastrophic injury, however, of the fatalities reported in football sincewere a result of direct mechanism and were the result of indirect mechanism.
In addition to football, cheerleading, baseball, wrestling, and track and field account for the sports with the next highest rates of direct injuries, while male basketball, male track and field, wrestling, male soccer, male cross country, and baseball account for the next highest rates of indirect injuries.
In all sports, the most common direct catastrophic injuries were a result of a fracture to the neck Athletic trainers are specifically trained in preventing and caring for emergency situations, especially among the athletic population. Having an AT on site in the event of a direct mechanism catastrophic injury will better ensure that the athlete is immediately cared for in the correct manor to limit the extent of the injury.
They are able to implement lifesaving skills while taking into consideration the proper way to navigate the equipment that the sport might entail in which other health care professionals may not be familiar.
Athletic trainers are familiar with the different types and models of equipment, and have training and experience in the proper equipment removal techniques. Emergency medical services EMS personnel often have little to no experience safely removing the facemask, helmet or shoulder pads in football athletes with a suspected cervical spine injury.
The specialized training in the athletic population by the AT can help limit the extent of the injury to the athlete by providing appropriate care.
Additionally, indirect injuries such as cardiac arrest, heat stroke, asthma, and diabetic emergencies can be handled quickly and efficiently with an AT on site. A larger percentage of catastrophic injuries occur from an indirect cause, and can happen during any exertional activity including competition, practice, or training In an athlete with cardiac arrest, the longer it takes for CPR to begin and AED to be used, the lower the chance of survival.
Exertional heat illness is another cause of indirect catastrophic injury. A full-time AT is available to not only educate athletes and coaches on the importance of hydration in preventing heat illness and recognizing the signs and symptoms of heat illness, but they are also there for immediate action.
Heat stroke is a life threatening condition that must be dealt with immediately or the illness could be fatal 1. Athletic trainers are also trained to care for other sudden life threatening conditions such as asthma attacks, diabetic emergencies, and allergic reactions that can be cared for directly to reduce the risk of death.
Recently, traumatic brain injuries have become an important topic of conversation due to the emerging research on both the immediate and long-term negative effects of concussions.
Participation in athletics while having symptoms of a concussion can lead to increased and prolonged symptoms, while sustaining another head impact when participating with a concussion can lead to long term brain impairment known as post-concussion syndrome, or to death due to increased pressure in the brain known as second impact syndrome 3.
The potential long-term effects of multiple concussions are very serious. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes memory loss, depression, and dementia, and currently can only be diagnosed post-mortem Pseudobulbar affect PBA is a neurological disorder that has recently been linked to traumatic brain injury that causes outbursts of laughter or crying in inappropriate contexts Concussion awareness, immediate diagnosis, and action is the number one way to prevent fatalities due to concussion 3.
More thanconcussions occur in high school athletics each year and many more go unreported because many athletes, coaches, and parents do not fully understand what a concussion is or that it has even occurred 2, 10, Children and young teenagers are at a higher risk for sustaining a concussion and take longer to recover from a concussion than adults due to their developing brains EBSCO is the leading provider of research databases, e-journals, magazine subscriptions, ebooks and discovery service for academic libraries, public libraries, corporations, schools, government and .
Authors: Rachele E. Vogelpohl, PhD, ATC Corresponding Author: Rachele E. Vogelpohl HC Nunn Drive Highland Heights, KY [email protected] Rachele Vogelpohl is an assistant professor and Athletic Training Program director at Northern Kentucky University, and is a certified athletic trainer.
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