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Through my work, I will highlight five different factors that motivate code-switching in a bilingual speaker although the reasons for code-switching are many.
I will talk about the role of ethnic solidarity, social class, topic, affection, and persuasion in motivating switching codes. I will use different approaches and case-studies conducted by researchers from inside and outside Lebanon to back up my discussion.
A Sociolinguistic Approach 1. A person is said to be multilingual if he or she is competent in more than one language. Multilingualism is usually the result of many factors, such as colonisation, intercultural marriage, cultural interaction, education, and many other reasons.
The applied linguist Del Hymes defines communicative linguistic competence as, '[a person] acquires competence as to when to speak, when not, and as to what to talk about with whom, when, where, in what manner' Hymes, In this way, a person who is capable of using appropriately two languages or more is said to be multilingual.
Usually, bilinguals and multilinguals tend to switch languages within the same utterance. This phenomenon is referred to as code-switching.
Eyamba Bokamba, a professor of Second Language Acquisition at the University of Illinois defines code-switching as, ' [ Code-switching is then one phenomenon that results from bilingualism and multilingualism. Sociolinguists have always been interested in studying the phenomenon and the reasons that stand behind it.
There are many factors that stand behind code-switching, like solidarity, social status, topic, affection, and persuasion. The main body of the paper is divided into three parts. The first part of the body sets the definition of the phenomenon of code-switching.
The second paragraph highlights five reasons that lead to code-switching while the third paragraph contains the conclusion of the paper. Why do People Code-switch 4 2. In many situations, a speaker may shift from one code to another, intentionally or unintentionally.
This shift may be from one language to another, from one dialect to another, or from one style to another for many different reasons.
A bilingual teacher in class may switch his or her language in order to elaborate a certain point they are explaining.
Sociolinguists refer to this shift as 'code-switching'. Indeed, the definition of code-switching varies from one linguist to another, thus I will use several definitions that were set by various sociolinguists.
It must be noted that I have highlighted that any person who is capable of switching codes must be a competent bilingual or multilingual. Thus, despite the different definitions of code-switching that I will introduce, linguistic competence should always present.
In the book Discourse Strategy, John J.
Gumperz defines what he calls 'conversational code-switching' as ' the juxtaposition within the same speech exchange of passages of speech belonging to two different grammatical systems or subsystems. Another approach to defining code-switching was set by sociolinguist Kathryn Woolard.
Thus, as I have previously discussed in the introduction, code-switching occurs within the same single utterance.
The term 'code-switching' differs from other language interaction phenomena, such as lexical borrowing. Lexical borrowing is the result of lack of a lexical terms in the speakers repertoire while in code-switching, as Janet Holmes says, '. Thus, a speaker who code-switches has a wider variety of lexical terms and phrases that enables them to shift codes freely in different circumstances and for different reasons.
As I have mentioned, in this part, I will be discussing the reasons why people switch codes.
Speakers may switch from one code to another either to show solidarity with a social group, to distinguish oneself, to participate in social encounters, to discuss a certain topic, to express feelings and affections, or to impress and persuade the audience.
Janet Holmes mentions in her book Introduction to Sociolinguistics that, 'a speaker may. Code-switching can be used to express solidarity between people from different or the same ethnic groups. Roger Hewitt gives a perfect example of code- switching in such cases.
He gives the example of two young boys from different ethnicities using the same Jamaican Creole: Oh, Royston, ya goin' football on Saturday? Mi na go football!Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies.
Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code -mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code - switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by.
i ABSTRACT This thesis analyzes the Spanish (SPA) and English (ENG) code-switching (CS) at Latino Vibe (LV), a bilingual radio station in Phoenix, Arizona from a. This thesis project investigates the functions of code switching, in what kinds of situations students code switch, code switching negatively affecting the growth of students specifically in their reading and writing skills.
Teachers' Attitudes Towards Code Switching 9. Code switching - Research Database - a dissertation help resource - This paper begins by distinguishing between code switching and language switching and then goes on to define specific components of both situational and metaphysical code switching within a monolinguistic society.
The hypothesis section of any thesis or . Code Switching, in terms of language, is the use of more than one language, by a person or more, during their conversations with each other.
Code Switching is done simply because those persons know more than one language and have more than one language in common. This switch may last for a couple of. Dissertation on permeation. Asiwaju, the first select the dissertation research along with the practitioners in the humanities abd progressively entering the dissertation .